During negotiations from 1993 to 1995, Somali principals had some success in reconciliation and establishment of public authorities.
The clampdown included bombing of cities, with the northwestern administrative center of Hargeisa, a Somali National Movement (SNM) stronghold, among the targeted areas in 1988.
It also played a major role in developing piracy in Somalia.
By the mid-1980s, more resistance movements supported by Ethiopia's communist Derg administration had sprung up across the country.
Barre responded by ordering punitive measures against those he perceived as locally supporting the guerrillas, especially in the northern regions.
) is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia.