The procedure is often performed as a group ritual, with many girls being cut at the same time, using the same tools that are not washed or sterilized from one girl to the next.
Wounds are closed with thorns or the intestines of cats or lambs. Female genital mutilation today is closely associated with the Islamic faith but there is historic evidence of it in both Christianity and Judaism, too. The earliest known documentation of the practice dates to 163 BC, when a description of the Egyptian procedure was written in Greek on papyrus.
Type III is infibulation with excision, or pharaonic circumcision.
Type II FGM involves the clitoris but also includes the labia majora and/or minora.
Some countries consider it a sexual crime while others consider it child abuse; in all countries where it is outlawed, it is a crime of violence.