Radiometric dating speed of light

radiometric dating speed of light-53

Thorium is much more similar to the transition metals zirconium and hafnium than to cerium in its ionisation energies and redox potentials, and hence also in its chemistry: this transition-metal-like behaviour is the norm in the first half of the actinide series.

Despite the anomalous electron configuration for gaseous thorium atoms, metallic thorium shows significant 5f involvement.

Four-fifths of the thorium present at Earth's formation has survived to the present.

Thorium has a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition, with atomic weight 232.0377(4).

The closeness in energy levels of the 5f, 6d, and 7s energy levels of thorium results in thorium almost always losing all four valence electrons and occurring in its highest possible oxidation state of 4.