Access into northern North America was blocked by the Wisconsin glaciation.
The dire wolf lived in the Americas during the Late Pleistocene epoch (125,000–10,000 years ago).
The species was named in 1858, four years after the first specimen had been found.
YBP, the abundance of conifers decreased, and those of the modern coastal plant communities, including oak woodland, chaparral, and coastal sage scrub, increased.
The Santa Monica Plain lies north of the city of Santa Monica and extends along the southern base of the Santa Monica Mountains, and 28,000–26,000YBP it was dominated by coastal sage scrub, with cypress and pines at higher elevations.
In 1857, while exploring the Niobrara River valley in Nebraska, Leidy found the vertebrae of an extinct Canis species that he reported the following year under the name C.dirus (Leidy 1858) and Canis indianensis (Leidy 1869).