“Man ascends from the kingdom of necessity to the kingdom of freedom.” Frederick Engels “Women are the mothers of humanity, do not let us ever forget that or underemphasise its importance. 2 (g) Radcliffe-Brown and British Social Anthropology 2 (h) Levi-Strauss 3. Prolegomena The basic feature of primitive society is totemism “…or the system of totem and taboo.” (Reed, 1954). Techno-Economic Determinism and the Work of Marx on Pre-Capitalist Societies.
Totemism is an institution with a world-wide distribution and has both social and religious significance (Adam, 1954).
As a phenomenon totemism “…is not one thing, but is a general name given to a number of diverse institutions, which all have, or seem to have something in common.” (Radcliffe-Brown, 1952). A Short History of Culture from Prehistory to the Renascence.
Totemism in Historical Perspective 4 (a) Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Hither Asia 4 (b) Ancient Greece, Rome and the Mediterranean 5. Totemism is an important subject in the reconstruction of the most recent of human history and the means “…by which humankind elevated itself out of animality.” (Reed, 1978).
Totemism in Global Perspective 5 (a) Australia 5 (b) The Americas 5 (c) Africa 5 (d) Asia and India 5 (e) Pacific and Indonesia 6. Morgan, Matriarchy, Mother Right and Exogamy 7 (a) Morgan, Engels and Social Evolution 7 (b) Matriarchy, Bachofen and Mother Right 7 (c) The Clan and Exogamy 8. True totemism is found only among Australian Aborigines, north and south Amerindians, in New Guinea, and parts of Africa and India (Cooper, 1992).
Totemism has been divided into three classes, the individual, the social, and the cultic, encompassing a “…philosophy which regards man and nature as one corporate whole…” (Elkin, 1938).