Over 300 archaeological sites have been found within the park, the majority consisting of rock and wall paintings dating from 50,000-30,000 years Before Present.
Many of the numerous rock shelters in the Serra da Capivara National Park are decorated with rock paintings, some more than 25,000 years old.
In 1994, the municipality of Brejo do Piauí and, in 1995 the municipality of João Costa were dismembered of São João do Piauí.
The municipality of Coronel José Dias was dismembered of São Raimundo Nonato in 1992.
The region borders two major geological formations – the Maranhão-Piauí sediment basin and the peripheral depression of the São Francisco River – and is endowed with a diversity of relief vegetation and landscapes of breathtaking beauty and dotted with exceptional vistas of the surrounding valleys, mountains, and plains.