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For example, Freud's theory focused on sexual and aggressive tendencies as the primary forces driving human behavior.

The human potential movement, by contrast, defined human nature as inherently good.

The concepts and methods he developed are used in an eclectic fashion by many different types of counselors and therapists.

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A primary way of conveying this empathy is by active listening that shows careful and perceptive attention to what the client is saying.

In addition to standard techniques, such as eye contact, that are common to any good listener, person-centered therapists employ a special method called reflection, which consists of paraphrasing and/or summarizing what a client has just said.

The concept of self-actualization focuses on human strengths rather than human deficiencies.

According to Rogers, self-actualization can be blocked by an unhealthy self-concept (negative or unrealistic attitudes about oneself).

Some of the related changes that this form of therapy seeks to foster in clients include closer agreement between the client's idealized and actual selves; better self-understanding; lower levels of defensiveness, guilt, and insecurity; more positive and comfortable relationships with others; and an increased capacity to experience and express feelings at the moment they occur.