1), immature mating may be inferred to be coercive because courtship is absent and female choice behaviour appears to be constrained.
In previous work, immature-mating (IM) males were reported not to court, but were rarely cannibalized by females. hasselti males mate with adult females (AM), prolonged vibratory courtship is typical, and males that attempt copulation early are killed by females before mating is complete (premature cannibalism).
Mating trials of IM and AM females were recorded on digital video.
We compared behaviours from mating trials with complete video records, and which were known to involve successful copulation and sperm transfer because females produced egg sacs with viable offspring (Immature-mated, IM, n = 18; Adult-mated, AM, n = 17).
Thus, despite the appearance of conflict there is no evidence that immature-mating is coercive.