Precipitation occurs mainly in the spring and ranges from about 3 inches (80 millimetres) per year in the northwest desert to as much as 12 inches in the mountains.
Except in the oases and mountain valleys and plateaus, the vegetation is of a pronounced desert character.
Industries processing agricultural products and mineral raw materials have been developed in the oasis as well.
The economic and administrative centre of the oasis and the region is lower Amu Darya oasis lies in the ancient delta of the Amu Darya and was long one of the most important agricultural regions of the republic.
The Morghāb River, the lower reaches of which are crossed by the Karakum Canal, can supply more water for irrigation. Before the construction of the Karakum Canal, only small areas of wheat, barley, and melons could be cultivated because of the scarcity of water.